Tread, shoulder, sidewall, bead, carcass, belt, inner liner, and other components are structurally connected to complete the scientific structure of a tyre.
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TreadPart of the tyre which has direct contact with the roads surface
The tread consists of a thick layer of rubber which comes into direct contact with the road surface. It is highly resistant to fracture and shock in order to protect the carcass and belt located in the tyres interior. Rubber with strong anti-inner abrasion features is used to increase the tyres driving lifespan.
ShoulderThe shoulder of the tyre
Located between the tread and sidewall the shoulder is made up of the thickest layer of rubber in the entire tyre, making it easy to dispel heat that is accumulated inside the tyre whilst driving.
SidewallThe side (lateral part) of the tyre
Located between the tyres shoulder and bead the sidewall protects the carcass and increases ride-ability with its flexible extension and contraction movements. This part of the tyre also contains a great deal of information such as the tyre type, standard, structure, pattern, manufacturing company and brand name.
CarcassThe framework of the tyre
The carcass is the framework of the tyre, the most important part. Referring to all layers made up of tyre cord where internal air pressure, weight and shock are absorbed.
Breaker or BeltThe layer in between the tread and carcass
The breaker is a cord layer placed in-between the tread and carcass in a bias tyre to protect the carcass absorbing external shock and preventing splintering or injury to the tread from coming into direct contact with the carcass. The belt is a strong reinforcement layer located in the circumference between the tread and carcass in radial and belt tyres. It’s functions are similar to those of the breaker whilst also reinforcing the strength of the tread by firmly tightening the carcass.
BeadThe part that is in contact with the rim
The bead wraps around the end of the cord and fixes the tyre to the rim. It is made up of various parts including the bead wire, core, rubber and flipper. In general the rim is slightly tightened so in the case of sudden reduction of air pressure whilst driving the tyre will not become unfastened from the rim.
The inner liner substitutes for the tube in the tyres interior, consisting of a layer of rubber with superior airtight qualities which maintains air inside the tyre. The rubber generally consists of butyl, a synthetic rubber or a polyisoprene type.